Arctic Screaming

Arctic Screaming is a new book by Chad Kister about the horrors of the climate crisis in an easy to read narrative based on Kister's third and fourth Arctic expeditions, including a tour by rail throughout the US and Canada, and by ferry, Greenpeace boat and helicopter, kayak, bush plane, outboard motorboat by native American guides, and foot. Kister is the author of four books including Arctic Quest, Arctic Melting and Against All Odds.

Purchase Arctic Screaming: Journey to the Front Line of the Climate Crisis (293 pages) for only $7 on Kindle

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Here is an outline for the book:


a Introduction:

i Boating the Arctic Ocean

ii Flying through thick forest fire smoke

iii Overview of the impacts already seen in the Arctic

a Launching on a tour of Alaska and Canada

i By train to Prince Rupert British Columbia

ii The Ferry to Ketchikan, Alaska

iii Touring southeast Alaska by Greenpeace boat, helicopter, kayak, ferry, foot, car and bus

iv Through the Arctic by bush plane, boat and foot

v Sinkholes where underground ice has melted in the permafrost

vi Tipping points and abrupt climate change

a The need for everyone to get involved in the movement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

i We have the technology through efficiency, wind, solar and other renewables

ii Get involved politically, using the facts in this book

iii Carbon sequestration through sustainable means

iv We cannot give up on all life on our planet

1 Chapter 1 Anthropocene

a The Metaphore

i Freight train earth on the mountaintop where life flourishes

ii We are accelerating toward the slope down toward hellish conditions

iii Once we reach the steep slope, there is no turning back

iv Nearly all life on our planet is threatened

a Greenhouse gas emissions are fueling the train

i Carbon Dioxide is up 37 percent

ii Methane is up 250 percent

iii Emissions are increasing

a Stable states of the planet's climate and abrupt climate change

i The Ice House state includes the glacial and interglacial, where life is evolved to fit

ii The Greenhouse State is extraordinarily warm, with tropical conditions at the poles and nearly all of the planet uninhabitable by what life is now evolved to survive

iii Positive feedbacks can make the switch to a Greenhouse State inevitable if we pass a tipping point that we are fast approaching

a My personal efforts to sound the alarm

i Working with Greenpeace in The Hague

ii Civil disobedience to raise awareness to the crisis

iii Greenpeace's research in the Arctic

iv Major change needs to be made fast to reduce emissions

1 Chapter 2: A Climate Journey to Alaska by Train and Boat

a Driving through the night to get to the Toledo, Ohio Amtrak station

i The joy of train travel

ii Industrial blight along the Great Lakes

a On the train to California for a speaking tour

i Passing mile-long coal trains: a visible sign of the quantity of fossil fuels we are burning

ii Amazing scenery from the train through the Rocky Mountains

iii Watching busy 12-lane highways while relaxing on the train

a Salmon fisheries decimated from Washington State to California

i This emphasizes the need to preserve the intact fisheries in Alaska, where I was headed next

ii Development and logging in California has destroyed salmon streams, and increased greenhouse gas emissions

a Back east and north into Canada

i Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions

ii Security closes train routes: increasing greenhouse gas emissions

a Taking the train across Canada

i Heading toward the Arctic where I would lead a group of students through the Arctic Refuge

ii Taking the train along the Athabasca River, which is being poisoned downstream by tar sands development in Alberta

iii The scale we are changing the landscape and burning fossil fuels is impacting the climate

1 Northern Forests Hammered by Climate Change and Logging

a Taking the ferry to Alaska

i Clear-cutting rampant in British Columbia

ii The Yellow Cedar is dying because of global warming

a Millions of acres of forest in Alaska are dead because of the spruce bark beetle

i Spruce bark beetles increased in numbers because of the lack of severe cold that once kept the insect pests in low numbers

ii The disease impacts of climate change

iii Larch trees decimated by climate change

a Scientist Glen Juday explains the evidence that climate change caused the mass die-off of Alaskan forests

i Four million acres of spruce forests died completely

ii The die-off is unprecedented in recent history

iii The impacts on the ecosystem is massive

iv Pest species are moving north and growing in numbers

a Touring the Tongass National Forest

i The amazing temperate rainforest ecosystem

ii Dinner by the shrinking Mendenhall Glacier

iii Glaciers are melting at an astonishing rate

iv Glacier retreat can increase the probability of earth quakes

v Rising sea levels

1 Chapter 4: Ice Sheets Accelerating Flow into the Sea

a Ice Shelves shrinking globally

i Antarctica ice shelves collapsing into the Ocean

ii Canadian ice shelves crumbling away

iii Greenland melting at an exponentially increasing rate

a Massive global impacts

i Icequakes cause Seismic shocks

ii Sea level rise

iii Future predictions dire

1 Chapter 5: North Atlantic Current Slowing

a Oceanic current moderate Earth's climate

b The North Atlantic current is sensitive and prone to halting quickly

c Melting sea ice is slowing the current

1 Chapter 6: Climate Change Attacks Gray Whales, Salmon

a Kayaking through the Tongass National Forest with Gray whales all over

i Gray Whale population declining rapidly

a Catching salmon with brown bear very close

i Salmon threatened by global warming

ii Salmon in decline globally

1 Chapter 7: Climate Change Threatens Oceans

a Oceans are getting more acidic

b Carbonic acid increase threatens shellfish and the base of the Ocean food chain

c Taking the ferry to Hoonah and Scagway

d Into Canada along the gold miner route

e Yukon River salmon harmed by climate change

1 Chapter 8: Gwich'in Wisdom Warns of Major Changes

a The Gwich'in People in Old Crow warn of the climate crisis

i At the Gwich'in General Assembly, climate change was a main focus

ii The Porcupine River broke up early, taking a cabin and several meat caches

iii The Gwich'in are studying the permafrost melting

a Elders warn of major changes

i More Gwich'in returning to dog sleds to reduce fuel consumption

ii Meteorological station looks into wind energy potential on Crow Mountain

1 Chapter 9: Winds of the Future

a Renewable energy expert Chris Rose explains the potential of wind powering the United States

i North Dakota and South Dakota have enough wind potential for four times the current energy use of the United States

ii Wind power is growing in Alaska

iii Kotzebue began the shift to wind in Alaska

iv Wind energy is vastly cheaper today than just a few decades ago

a Large wind project underway on Fire Island off the coast of Anchorage

i The wind potential on the Aleutian islands is among the best in the world

ii The potential of generating hydrogen with wind and shipping it in cryogenic tankers

iii Several countries already have hydrogen powered buses

a With externality costs, renewable energy is already cost-effective

i Ecosystem services are worth at least 37 trillion dollars per year

ii Climate change causes massive economic damage

iii The renewable energy production tax credit is critical

iv Adding in the true costs of energy through taxes

v Putting the minor negative impacts of wind in perspective

1      Chapter 10: Bringing Testimonies from the Arctic to the Masses

a The folly of fossil fuels

i The impacts of climate change make renewables all the more attractive

ii Wind energy is far cheaper in rural Alaska where otherwise diesel is flown in to generators

iii Climate change is making the weather unpredictable to Native Americans

a Working to combat climate change

i Lobbying for strong action at the Earth Summit in 1992

ii Working with Greenpeace in the Netherlands

iii Greenpeace's fact-finding missions to the Arctic

a Native Americans hammered by climate change

i Water had to be trucked into Nanwalek

ii Global warming is impacting subsistence lifestyles

iii Traditional knowledge is less relevant in the changing environment

a Alaskans are convinced that climate change is real

i Polls show a strong awareness of the issue

ii The impacts are much greater in Alaska: most people are either affected or know someone who has been

a Author Charles Wohlforth explains the difference between the scientific and Indigenous knowledge of climate change

i Weather patterns are moving through faster

ii Scientists got the idea to study weather patterns from the Native peoples, then documented it using the scientific method

1 Chapter 11: Boating the Porcupine River from Canada to Alaska

a Boating down the Porcupine River with Gwich'in guide Dennis

i Global warming is accelerating erosion along the river

ii Smoke was thick from global warming-increased forest fires

iii Climate change is increasing forest fires around the world

1 Chapter 12: Smoky Haze from Crow Mountain

a Forest Ecologist Glen Juday explains how climate change is killing boreal forests

i Record forest fires in Alaska

ii Warmer temperatures are slowing tree growth

a Boating the Porcupine River to the Yukon River and Fort Yukon

i Forest fires prevalent in the Yukon River drainage

ii Fort Yukon Gwich'in report earlier ice breakup

iii Flying to Arctic Village where the northernmost permanent solar installation was being built

1 Chapter 13: Solar Powering the World

a I have lived entirely with solar power in southeastern Ohio

i The cost of solar is going down fast

ii Coal is subsidized heavily

iii We should subsidize clean energy like solar rather than dirty energy like coal

a Solar power production is on the increase

i Japan, Germany and California have the most installed solar

ii Carter put solar panels on the White House, while Reagan took them off

a Other renewables

i Methane from livestock

ii Energy efficiency

iii Being aware of energy consumption

1 Chapter 14: Movin' on Up: Animals and Plants Migrate North

a The Gwich'in People report that plant and animals are moving north

i Birds, moose, beaver and more are moving north to keep up with the changing climate

ii Trees and willows are growing taller and moving north

a Climate changing is harming subsistence livelihoods

i Berry crops are suffering

ii Bears are often ravenous and more dangerous

iii Vegetative growth and beaver dams are blocking fish migrations

iv Red fox have moved 600 miles north in central Canada

1 Chapter 15: The Melting Permafrost

a Finding a giant sinkhole in Arctic Village

i Ice cavities melt, leaving sinkholes

ii I had camped at the same spot in previous years

a Globally, permafrost is melting

i Melting permafrost has increased erosion

ii Lakes are drying out that once were supported by permafrost

iii Permafrost melting also harms building foundations and is tipping trees and telephone poles throughout Alaska

1 Chapter 16: Vanishing Tundra

a The tree line is moving north

i It is already a few dozen miles from the Arctic Ocean in Alaska

ii Trees eliminate the tundra habitat critical for many endangered birds

iii Muskox are also harmed by the loss of tundra

iv Moose are moving north

a Flying a bush plane into the Arctic Refuge

i An amazing flight through the Brooks Mountain Range to the Canning River

ii The tundra was much drier than my previous expeditions in the area more than a decade before

iii Flying through the Brooks Mountain Range toward Sunset Pass

iv From the air, one can see the reality of climate change, as satellites are doing on a global scale

1 Chapter 17: The Big Picture

a Satellites have proven the reality of climate change

i Climatologist Josefino Comiso

ii Alaska is warming more than other areas

a Climatolgoist Uma Bhatt explains how climate variabilities are taken into account in climate models

i Precipitation levels are predicted to move northward in Alaska

ii NASA canceled and delayed many critical climate satellites under former President Bush

a Back on the bush plane, flying through the Arctic Refuge

i Landing at Sunset Pass with caribou nearby

ii Temperatures were tropical in the Arctic and Antarctic 55 million years ago

iii We are triggering mechanisms that are switching the planet toward extremely hot temperatures

iv Looking over the coastal plain from a mountainside

1 Chapter 18: The Arctic Refuge: The Back Side of the Moon or the Last Great Refuge?

a How amazing it is to have a complete ecosystem, including native peoples living mostly off the land

i More than a thousands scientists call for refuge protection

ii Oil development would be devastating

a Efficiency is a much wiser energy policy than drilling the refuge

i Efficiency creates more jobs than more oil drilling

ii The lifestyle and culture of the Gwich'in people is at stake

iii The Arctic Refuge is a jewel of nature that must not be touched

a Senator Larry Craig likened the Arctic Refuge to the back side of the moon

i In fact, the refuge is one of the few places on Earth with all of its plants and animals still intact

ii Drilling in the refuge increases the risk of terrorism

iii The Trans Alaskan Pipeline is very vulnerable

1 Chapter  19: Opening the Floodgates: The Arctic is Just the Beginning

a Drilling proponent declares that drilling in the refuge would break the back of the environmental movement

b Senator Ken Salazar calls for refuge protection

c Polls show Americans favor refuge protection

d Encountering caribou in the Arctic Refuge

1 Chapter 20: Locking Horns with Climate Change: The Caribou Challenge

a With forests moving north, the barren-ground caribou is threatened

i Open tundra is critical for the barren-ground caribou

ii Extreme weather events are harming caribou

iii The coastal plain is critical for the Porcupine Caribou Herd

iv Freezing rain in the winter is killing caribou by the hundreds

a Leading a group of students through the refuge

i Catching grayling, yet another Arctic animal threatened by climate change

ii Arctic rivers are changing fast, harming native fish

a My thermometer rose to the high 80s a few dozen miles from the Arctic Ocean in 2004

i Temperatures are soaring in Alaska

ii Arctic ecosystems are exceptionally sensitive to temperature changes

1 Chapter 21: Witnessing the End of a Glacier

a Transition to my 2005 Arctic expedition

i Temperatures soared to near 90 in 2005 as well

ii A grizzly roamed nearby

iii Catching and eating Grayling

iv When the gas ran out for our stoves, I made a fire to cook the fish

a Encountering the last remnant of a giant glacier

i The tiny, car-sized remnant of ice

ii Hiking through a mile of glacial moraine that had recently been filled with ice

1 Chapter 22: Human-Caused or Natural?

a The solid proof that we are changing the climate

i Climatologist Uma Bhatt

ii Atmospheric scientists are near unanimous: humans are the cause of the change

iii Climatologist Guntner Weller confirms the science

a Fossil fuel industry discredits sound science

i 35,000 scientists warn that fossil fuel burning causes climate change

ii Carbon dioxide levels are rising fast

iii The data is enormous to prove that we are the cause of the warming

a Fogged in at Sunset Pass

i Climbing a mountain every day to try to contact our bush pilot

ii Flying to Kaktovik, where Senator Ted Stevens held a public meeting

1 Chapter 23: My First Encounter with Ted Stevens

a From the Arctic wilderness to a public meeting to protect it

i Asking Senator Stevens to protect the refuge

ii Stevens threatens to remove me from the meeting for shaking my head

iii Kaktovik residents  submit petition opposing oil development in the refuge

a Ted Stevens accepts massive gifts from oil companies

i The FBI and IRS raid Stevens' Girdwood home

ii Stevens bribed by oil companies in return for political favors

1 Chapter 24: Dwindling Sea Ice

a Meeting Stacey Fritz in the bunkhouse

i Stacey and I meet with Inupiat Robert Thompson

ii Thompson tells of a close encounter with a grizzly that killed two people in the refuge

a Boating the Arctic Ocean with Robert Thompson

i In 1991, the area had been ice at the same time of year

ii 2007 saw a record ice loss

iii Ice is critical to the Arctic food chain

a Satellite data confirms that sea ice is shrinking fast

i U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Biologist Fran Mauer confirms sea ice loss

ii Senator Ted Stevens admits loss of ice

iii Open water at the North Pole

iv Greenland hunters forced to eat sled dogs because of climate change-caused starvation

a Nuclear submarine data confirms sea ice loss

i Nearly all Arctic species rely on sea ice

ii Lack of ice hinders subsistence lifestyles

1 Chapter 25: Retreating Pack Ice Kills Thousands of Walrus

a Tens of thousands of Walrus turned back to shore after they were unable to reach pack ice in 2007

i This event is unprecedented and was clearly caused by the fact that the ice was 700 miles farther from shore because of climate change

ii Thousands of walrus were trampled after they returned to land

iii Walrus and especially young walrus are in decline

a As the pack ice retreats, walrus are pushed into deeper waters

i They must swim down deeper to get clams

ii Walrus are critical to the Arctic Ocean habitat

1 Chapter 26: Arctic Screaming

a Record ice melt in 2007 prompted the Associated Press to say The Arctic is Screaming

i Unprecedented melting in 2007 shocks scientists

ii Reduction in perennial ice

a The change in Albedo means the melting ice causes more warming

i Positive feedbacks like melting ice threaten runaway warming

ii Portions of the Arctic Ocean 12-14 degrees Celsius warmer

iii Seal petitioned to be added to Endangered Species Act

iv Greenland melting accelerating exponentially

v The increased rate of carbon dioxide rise spells uncertain future

1 Chapter 27: The Fate of the Polar Bear

a Boating the Arctic Ocean with open water as far as the eye could see

i Inupiat Robert Thompson warns that polar bears are hungrier as we spot a paw print

ii Polar bear are threatened with extinction this century

iii Vast swaths of Arctic Ocean auctioned for oil drilling before the polar bear was listed as threatened

a The polar bear will go extinct unless we take strong, swift action

i Polar bear live in 19 population groups around the circumpolar Arctic

ii Drowning polar bear

iii Hudson Bay and Beaufort populations in serious decline

a Most polar bear are building dens on land rather than on the pack ice as they once did

i Dens collapse in early spring, killing cubs

ii Cub survival is declining

a Endangered Species Act mandates greenhouse gas reductions

i Earlier ice melt means thinner polar bears

ii Polar bears depend upon the ice to hunt

iii Less ice means less food in the Arctic Ocean

a Polar bear assaulted on many fronts

i PCBs accumulate in the bears because they are at the top of the food chain

ii Polar bears starving with lack of food

iii The polar bear is the mascot of many climate change groups

a Returning to Kaktovik with a bucket of fish

i Walking out to the bone yard with Stacey

ii Toxic and radioactive waste once thought to be permanently frozen is now melting into the Arctic Ocean

iii Offshore oil development in the Arctic Ocean did not take the warming into account

1 Chapter 28: The Decline of Black Guillemots

a Black Guillemots declining along with sea ice

i Mother Guillemots must fly to the edge of the ice to feed

ii When the ice is farther, they cannot make it out to feed, then back to feed their young

iii The population crashed when ice was farther from shore

1 Chapter 29: Sea Coasts Crumble into the Sea

a Sea level rise, melting permafrost and increasing wave size is crumbling shorelines into the sea

i Flooding and erosion affects most of the Native villages in Alaska

ii Four villages need moved immediately, while five more are threatened

a Erosion increasing with climate change

i Infrastructure is being destroyed

ii The cost of moving Alaskan villages is enormous

1 Chapter 30: Kivalina

a The village is crumbling into the sea because of climate change

i Kivalina files suit against coal companies, oil companies and electric companies demanding that they pay the cost of moving the village

ii Kivalina plans to move, at an enormous cost

a The island is in grave danger

i There is no room for sanitation facilities

ii The village is undertaking plans to relocate

1 Chapter 31 Shishmaref

a Sea wall and houses crumbling into the sea

i Shishmaref's history

ii Twenty homes forced to move after severe storms and erosion

iii Village plans to move at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars

a Shishmaref Pastor Kim Oslovich

i Erosion is accelerating

ii Sea wall was a temporary fix

iii Beach and meat drying racks taken in storm

1 Chapter 32: Opening the Northwest Passage

a Boating in the Arctic Ocean

i Witnessing the vast expanse of open water

ii The Northwest Passage is open

iii The history of the Northwest Passage

a Shipping through the passage would be environmentally devastating

i The area is among the most ecologically fragile in the world

ii Canada claims it as its waters, creating international conflict

1 Chapter 33: Pentagon Calls Climate Change more Serious Threat than Terrorism

a The 2004 report was censored by former President George Bush

i The $100,000 report warned of global catastrophe

ii The analogy of a tipping canoe

iii Climate change could spark wars and conflict for food, water and energy

a Abrupt climate change

i Warnings of global conflict

ii World Bank echoes Pentagon warning

iii The predictions of the Pentagon

1 Chapter 34: Feedback loops

a Global warming is triggering mechanisms that cause more warming

i Negative feedbacks that reduce warming are declining

ii Positive feedbacks that accelerate warming are increasing

iii Melting Arctic ice is decreasing the amount of solar energy that is reflected back to space, greatly increasing water temperatures

iv Changing from tundra to forest also decreases the amount of solar energy that is reflected, raising temperatures

a Permafrost melting is another major positive feedback

i Recent studies show that permafrost temperatures are rising fast

ii Melting permafrost is increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels

1 Chapter 35: Methane Clathrate Mega-Threat

a Methane Clathrates contain 8 times the carbon of the permafrost: a massive amount

i The hydrates are beginning to melt, threatening catastrophic climate change

ii Bursts of methane off the coast of Santa Barbara, California

iii Levels of methane rising fast in Arctic Ocean waters

a Methane hydrate melting likely responsible for past mass extinctions

i Methane Hydrates are inherently unstable

ii Additional positive feedbacks threaten more warming

iii Past climate changes show that temperatures tend to rise very fast until a new stable state is reached

1 Chapter 36: Prudhoe Bay: Witnessing a Major Source of the Apocalypse

a Flying from Kaktovik to Prudhoe Bay, along the threatened coastal plain

i The amazing ecosystem begs protection

ii Leaving the Arctic Refuge, oil development scars the land

a Climate change is reducing the season for the oil industry dramatically

i Rather than change to a non-polluting energy source, the oil industry changed the rules to allow more damage to the tundra

ii The change to allow more tundra damage was politically, not scientifically motivated

iii Permafrost melting is releasing toxic and radioactive waste sites into waterways and the Arctic Ocean

1 Chapter 37: Prudhoe Bay: Witness to a Source of Climate Armageddon

a The sprawling destruction of Prudhoe Bay

i Walking around Deadhorse

ii Taking a bus tour of Prudhoe Bay

iii Directional drilling a negligible reduction in environmental impact

iv Massive numbers of spills occur regularly at an increasing rate

1 Chapter 38: Lurching into Inhospitable Greenhouse Earth

a The endless roads and development of Prudhoe Bay show the scale of the impacts and effort we have undertaken to develop fossil fuels

b The two stable states of the planet warn of abrupt climate change

i Changing to a Greenhouse Earth State would be catastrophic

ii We are approaching a tipping point whereby the switch toward a Greenhouse Earth State may be inevitable

iii Atmospheric carbon and methane levels are soaring

iv Tipping elements

v Extraordinarily warm temperatures once existed on Earth

1 Chapter 39: Dire Future

a Alaska's future bleak

i Many changes are irreplaceable, such as extinction

ii The impacts that can be mitigated can be enormously costly

a Forest Ecologist Glenn Juday

i Vast swaths of forest are likely to die in Alaska

ii Record forest fires will continue and get worse

iii The landscape will be drier

iv Forest will reach to the Arctic Ocean

v Alaska is a warning to the world that fast change is underway

1 Chapter 40: With our Planet Burning, Mandatory Emissions Reduction Critical

a Prudhoe Bay shows the scale of the crisis

b Witnessing the vast forest fires, I could see our planet burning

i Traveling the haul road next to the Trans Alaskan Pipeline

ii Even oil companies admit climate change is real

a Cap and trade is the best method of reducing emissions

i Like World War II, the U.S. is late to get involved

ii The U.S. has been blocking the Kyoto Protocol until Obama

1 Chapter 41: The Tide is Turning: Former Climate Skeptics Changing Sides

a Lisa Murkowski

i 5,000 high school students petition Lisa Murkowski for climate action

ii Murkowski votes for Kyoto Protocol negotiations

iii In 2010, however, Murkowski leads effort to gut EPA's climate effort

a Pat Robertson warns of heat waves

b Former World Bank Chief David Stern

c Rupert Murdock

d Ted Stevens

e The Insurance Industry

1 Chapter 42: Efficiency: Reducing Climate Change while Helping the Economy

a Taking the bus from Fairbanks to Anchorage

i If mass transit can work in Alaska, it can work anywhere

ii Cars are extraordinarily dangerous

iii The predicted climate change mortality rate is massively greater

a Energy efficiency has enormous potential in America

i Public transportation is exponentially more fuel efficient than driving

ii Mass transit and bicycling create a healthier, better quality of life

a America once had the best train system in the World

i Oil, auto and tire companies conspired to buy up tracks and turn them into roads

ii Trains provide luxurious travel while slashing greenhouse gas emissions

a Other methods to achieve energy efficiency

i Increasing auto fuel efficiency

ii CFL and LED lighting

iii The environmental ethic to conserve

iv Increased quality of life with less noise and pollution

1 Chapter 43: Anchorage Sees Massive Climate Change

a Winter sport enthusiasts hampered by lack of snow and ice

i Iditarod dog sled race rerouted

ii Fur Rendezvous dog sled race canceled

iii Teens fight and riot at the Fur Rondy

a Climate change is real, not theoretical in Alaska

b Hurricane Katrina hit New Orleans as I left Alaska

i Predictions are for loss of life in the billions this century with increasing Katrina-like disasters

ii Climate change caused disease, flooding, drought, crop failure and more extreme weather events killing hundreds of thousands of people every year

1 Chapter 44: Climate Change Cures Create Better World

a We can solve the climate crisis

i Get active politically

a Solving the climate crisis solves many other problems

i Air pollution will decrease

ii Old growth forests will be restored

a Cap and trade promotes flexibility and American Ingenuity

i A description of how cap and trade works

ii Fast and significant emissions reductions are critical

a We will create a much nicer world in the process

i Parking spaces will turn into bike paths and green space

ii Old growth forest will be restored, greatly increasing the quality of life of those nearby

iii Locally grown organic food will make nicer landscapes

iv Noisy internal combustion engines will be quieted with solar powered electric machines

v People will be healthier with more hiking and bicycling trails

a Concluding statement about the critical need for the change to a better world

1 About the Author